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Heart Attack



Unlike other pathological or infectious diseases, the heart diseases are more often serious and require instant attention. The heart diseases more commonly found today are the heart attack or acute myocardial infarction, heart failures, angina pectoris, and others.

The heart is one of the most vital organs in our body that circulates blood in the whole body by pumping itself effectively. But what happens, if that same heart tissue become devoid of meeting its blood and oxygen demands? Obviously, it undergoes necrotic changes in the long run thus silently predisposing the person affected to the risk of getting a heart attack.


  • Conditions such as atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis.
  • Rupture of the atheroma or the plaques which occlude the coronary artery resulting into the myocardial ischemia.

Other risk factors include:

  • Tobacco smoking
  • Hyper lipidemia
  • High cholesterol levels
  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Stress

Signs &Symptoms of heart attack:

  • Chest pain is the warning symptom for heart attack or myocardial infarction; the pain usually is of squeezing nature; it may be felt as pressure creating or be described as the sensation of tightness. It more often is radiating in the nature. Pain radiates most often to the left arm, but may also radiate to the lower jaw, neck, right arm, back, and epigastrium, where it may mimic heartburn.

Other symptoms are as follows:

  • Shortness of the breath
  • Diaphoresis or excessive sweating
  • Light headedness
  • Palpitations
  • Weakness
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness and fainting

First aid for the heart attack:

The heart attack or acute myocardial infarction is a medical emergency which demands immediate management; so the first aid treatment becomes an essential means to save some one’s life.

Patients having heart attack experience the above mentioned signs and symptoms of which the severe pain is the most intolerable.

Before shifting such patients to the hospital; without wasting the precious time one should try to provide the pre hospital care or first aid. Time is definitely the most crucial factor in such cases. “Time wasted is the muscle lost” (the delay in care degenerates the myocardial muscle fibers).

You can manage if you see any person with heart attack:

  • Emergency call: call 911 or any other local emergency service providers.
  • Loosen the clothing of the patient.
  • Certain positions such as semi-sitting position can provide a sort of relief to the patient.
  • Ensure strict bed rest. Avoid any excessive movements.

Remember the mnemonic MONA:


  • Tablet morphine, an analgesic may be administered in the dose of 10-15mg to relieve the pain.
  • Ensure that adequate ventilation is present for the patient; this meets the oxygen demands of the body.
  • If prescribed, administer nitrates sublingually; they dilate the coronary vessels and relieve pain.
  • Give aspirin quickly if advised by your doctor; it has anti-platelet aggregating action; it thus inhibits clogging of the thrombi into the vessels.
  • About two-thirds of the deaths are due to the arrthymias which occur within the first two hours of the attack; to prevent it lidocaine200mg injection can be administered intramuscularly.
  • Begin CPR, if the patient becomes unconscious and goes in the state of cardiac arrest and you are trained enough, to perform it, to rescue the victim’s life.

This site provides you with the general guidelines and information regarding the first aid measures for the various conditions or health related problems. It is not a substitute for the medical advice or the formal first aid training. It will not be responsible or liable in case one tries to make diagnosis based on the provided information. You always need to consult the doctor and emergency department in case of all the serious emergencies rather than just relying upon the supposed guidelines.